3.5 Genetic modification and biotechnology

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3.5 Genetic modification and biotechnology

3.5 Genetic modification and biotechnology

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Essential idea:

3.5.1  Biologists have developed techniques for artificial manipulation of DNA, cells and organisms.

Recombinant DNA technology video


How Restriction endonucleases works? Animation


Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFA)  


Nature of science:


3.5.2  Assessing risks associated with scientific research—scientists attempt to assess the risks associated with genetically modified crops or livestock. (4.8)





3.5.3  Gel electrophoresis is used to separate proteins or fragments of DNA

according to size.


Gel electrophoresis animation


Gel Electrophoresis

Electrophoresis activity 


3.5.4  PCR can be used to amplify small amounts of DNA.


The Polymerase Chain Reaction interactive animation


http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/pcr/ PCR virtual lab


The Polymerase Chain Reaction animation


The PCR song


The PCR song with animation


3.5.5  DNA profiling involves comparison of DNA.


DNA Microarray


Experiments & Techniques: Microarray


3.5.6  Genetic modification is carried out by gene transfer between species.


Article-Taiwan breeds green-glowing pigs


Glowing Pig Passes Genes to Piglets


Article,Crusaders Against GMOs


IB Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology video


GMO Compass


Search the register for products containing GMOs


Genes or Organisms


GM Crop Database


Genetically modified organisms and Invasive species in Europe.


3.5.7  Clones are groups of genetically identical organisms, derived from a single original parent cell.


Cloning ınteractive animation


3.5.8  Many plant species and some animal species have natural methods of




3.5.9  Animals can be cloned at the embryo stage by breaking up the embryo into more than one group of cells.


Steps in cloning



3.5.10  Methods have been developed for cloning adult animals using differentiated cells.






3.5.11  Application: Use of DNA profiling in paternity and forensic investigations.


3.5.12  Application: Gene transfer to bacteria using plasmids makes use of restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase.


3.5.13  Application: Assessment of the potential risks and benefits associated with genetic modification of crops.


3.5.14  Application: Production of cloned embryos produced by somatic-cell nuclear





3.5.15  Skill: Design of an experiment to assess one factor affecting the rooting of stem-cuttings.


3.5.16  Skill: Analysis of examples of DNA profiles.


3.5.17  Skill: Analysis of data on risks to monarch butterflies of Bt crops.





3.5.18  Students should be able to deduce whether or not a man could be the father of a child from the pattern of bands on a DNA profile.



3.5.19  Dolly can be used as an example of somatic-cell transfer.



3.5.20  A plant species should be chosen for rooting experiments that forms roots readily in water or a solid medium.



Theory of knowledge:



3.5.21  The use of DNA for securing convictions in legal cases is well established,yet even universally accepted theories are overturned in the light of new evidence in science. What criteria are necessary for assessing the reliability of evidence?


A variety of genetic resources




3.5.22  Syllabus and cross-curricular links:


Topic 2.7 DNA replication, transcription and translation





3.5.23  Aim 6: The design of a rooting experiment should ideally lead to the

experiment actually being carried out by students.


               Aim 8: The ethics of genetic modification could be discussed.


Gene therapy success 'reverses' blindness


Severed combined immunodefiency

3.5 Genetic modification + Biotechnology Presentation 

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