2.4 Proteins

Home > Lesson > 2.4 Proteins

2.4 Proteins

2.4 Proteins

Knowledge control of 2.4 Proteins

Essential idea:

2.4.1 Proteins have a very wide range of functions in living organisms.


What is protein?

Nature of science:


2.4.2 Looking for patterns, trends and discrepancies—most but not all organisms assemble proteins from the same amino acids. (3.1)


3D structure of protein




2.4.3 Amino acids are linked together by condensation to form polypeptides.


Dipeptide formation

Aminoacid condensation

Condensation/Dehydration synthesis of protein


2.4.4   There are 20 different amino acids in polypeptides synthesized on ribosomes.


Amino acids game


2.4.5  Amino acids can be linked together in any sequence giving a huge range of possible polypeptides.


2.4.6  The amino acid sequence of polypeptides is coded for by genes.


2.4.7 A protein may consist of a single polypeptide or more than one polypeptide linked together.


2.4.8  The amino acid sequence determines the three-dimensional conformation of a protein.


1 Protein folding

2 Protein folding

3 Protein folding

4 Protein folding

5 Protein folding


2.4.9 Living organisms synthesize many different proteins with a wide range of functions.


Motor protein


2.4.10 Every individual has a unique proteome.




2.4.11 Application: Rubisco, insulin, immunoglobulins, rhodopsin, collagen and spider silk as examples of the range of protein functions.


2.4.12 Application: Denaturation of proteins by heat or by deviation of pH from the optimum.




2.4.13 Skill: Drawing molecular diagrams to show the formation of a peptide bond.




2.4.14 The detailed structure of the six proteins selected to illustrate the functions of proteins is not needed.


2.4.15  Egg white or albumin solutions can be used in denaturation experiments.


Protein denaturation 


2.4.16   Students should know that most organisms use the same 20 amino acids in the same genetic code although there are some exceptions. Specific examples could be used for illustration.




2.4.17 Proteomics and the production of proteins by cells cultured in fermenters offer many opportunities for the food, pharmaceutical and other industries.




2.4.18 Aim 7: ICT can be used for molecular visualization of the structure of proteins.


2.4.19 Aim 8: Obtaining samples of human blood for  immunological,pharmaceutical and anthropological studies is an international endeavour with many ethical issues.

2.4 Proteins Worksheet

Practical 1

Recent Lessons